One of the first questions potential Tesla Model 3, Model Y, S or X owners want to know is how long it will take to charge their vehicle. Unlike a gas car where you can quickly fill up at a gas station, with an electric vehicle, it takes a bit more planning, not only to find a charger, but also taking into consideration the length of time it takes to charge.
Luckily, Tesla owners have one of the largest and fastest charging networks available. Tesla has spent a good amount of time building out its charging network over the years that consists of Superchargers and Destination chargers, making charging relatively convenient and easy, particularly compared to other electric cars.
Since Tesla vehicles have excellent range and since owners typically charge their Teslas at home, most people don’t worry about charging at all until they go on a road trip. Even then, the sophisticated Tesla navigation software calculates the estimated consumption for the route and will automatically incorporate charging station stops along the way.
How long it takes to charge a Tesla depends on where you’re charging, since there are many charging options, and to a lesser extent, your Tesla model (as some, like the Model 3 and Model Y, have higher charging rates).
How Fast Does a Tesla Charge, in Brief…
Here are some quick rules-of-thumb when it comes to Tesla charging times:
- Home Charging – Fully charging at a residential home where power output is low usually takes overnight from an empty battery to a full charge (or a couple hours if you’re just topping-off from a daily commute). Most people just plug in when they get home.
- Charging at Superchargers – Charging at a Tesla Supercharger while on the road usually takes anywhere from 30 minutes to an hour, or sometimes a little more depending on the charger and the vehicle.
- Charging at Public Chargers – Public chargers have widely varying power rates which can be as slow as a home charger or as fast as a Tesla Supercharger. Check the power rate of the public charger to get a sense of the charging time and see the tips in this article.
We’ll explain all the details below, in addition to charging costs for a Tesla versus other vehicles.
Also, be sure to check out the charging tips video at the end of the article.
Understanding Electricity & Charging Basics
The first thing to understand is how charging rates and capacity are expressed for electricity.
kW and kWh (and amps)
The two primary terms you’ll come across in the electric car world are kW (kilowatts) and kWh (kilowatt hours). Kilo is 1,000, so kW 1,000 watts, for example. You’ll also, of course, come across amps which are useful to know when connecting to your home. Here are the definitions:
- kWh = kilowatt hour and is measurement of energy. This can be used to express how much stored energy something has, like a battery. For example if you have a battery with 1 kWh capacity, you could run a 100 watt bulb for 10 hours.
- kW = kilowatts and is a measurement of speed of power. This expresses the speed at which energy is used or made. So a 100 watt bulb burns more power more quickly than a 40 watt bulb. Likewise a 100 watt charger for a battery would charge a battery faster than a 40 watt one.
- Amps = measure of current and is related to volts. You only need to know this when connecting a charger to your home to figure how much power (kW) you can produce to charge your vehicle. The formula is:
- watts = amps x volts
Range and Battery Capacities for Electric Cars
As you know, gas cars have a tank of gas that holds “gallons” of gas and have a range based on MPG. For electric cars is somewhat similar. In electric cars, the battery capacity (the “tank”) is expressed in kWh. Most Tesla cars have a battery capacity of around 50 kWh to 100 kWh.
Tesla typically doesn’t mention the battery capacity and instead just lists the range of each option. So, for example, the Model X SUV “Long Range” with a 100 kWh battery pack currently has a range of 325 miles (an efficiency of 3.25 miles/kWh) whereas the Model 3 “Standard Range Plus” with a 54 kWh battery pack has a range of 250 miles, or 4.6 miles/kWh.
Battery and Electric Vehicle Charging
For charging, electricity is expressed in kW (kilowatts). Remember this is the speed at which your call will charge. Typical Tesla Superchargers range from 75 kW to 150 kW (or even higher, up to 250 kW, for new V3 ones). Charging at home is much slower, around 5 to 10 kW.
Battery and EV Charging Time Calculations
To calculate how long it takes to charge an EV (or any battery for that matter), you take the desire charge capacity (kWh) divide by charge power (kW) and multiply by 60 (minutes per how).
As a simple example, in theory, if you wanted to fully charge a Model 3 or Model Y Long Range 75 kWh battery with a 75 kW Supercharger, it would take 60 minutes (one hour) to do so… again, in theory. In practice, it would actually take longer since the charge decreases (or tapers off) as the charge completes to protect the battery. We’ll explain Tesla battery tapering below.
Another example, you have a 75 kWh battery with 10 kWh remaining and you want to charge it to 60 kWh, or 50 kWh in total. If you charged at a rate of 120 kW, it would take 25 minutes (again, ideally but not in practice). The equation here is: (50 kWh / 120 kW) x 60 minutes/hour = 25 minutes.
Range Per Hour (RPH) for EVs
An easy way to express a car’s charging speed is to use Range Per Hour (RPH). This rate incorporates the charge rate and vehicle efficiency to provide a real-world, easy-to-understand number most people can understand.
Here’s how it works:
Let’s say you have a Tesla Model 3 Standard Range Plus (SR+) that has a range of 250 miles and a 54 kWh battery. It would have an efficiency of 4.63 miles / kWh. If you charge at a rate of 75 kW, then your RPH would be 4.63 x 75 = 347 miles. That’s fast! In 20 minutes, you’d gain 115 miles.
While the RPH metric is easy to understand, it requires knowing your vehicle’s efficiency, which can vary quite a bit. Therefore, it’s often used when talking about specific cars and not chargers, in general.
Bottom Line – kW for chargers, and RPH if available
While Range Per Hour (RPH) is an ideal measurement, it’s highly dependant on each car and its efficiency. Most people simply a charger’s kW rating to get a sense of how fast or slow the charge will take.
Charger kW Rates – What’s Fast and What’s Slow?
So if most people tend to look at a charger’s kW charging rate, what’s considered fast or slow? Here’s are some quick rules-of-thumb:
- Under 50 kW – slow / day charge.
- Most chargers under 50 kW tend to be older public chargers or home / business destination chargers that tap into traditional AC voltage, making the charge take a long time. This is usually an all day or at best, half-day affair.
- 50 kW to 120 kW – charge in about an hour or more.
- Charger with greater than 50 kW charge power can be used when you’re on-the-go or a road trip. You’ll usually top off in an hour or two at most. Tesla Urban Superchargers (75 kW) fall into this category.
- 120 kW and above – charge in under an hour.
- If you have a car that can charge at 120 kW for a sustained period of time and a charger that consistently provides 120 kW and above, you’ll be done in under an hour. Most Tesla Superchargers (V2 and V3, not urban) fit this category.
Charging Rate Capacity by Tesla Vehicle
While all Tesla vehicles generally charge fairly quickly, the newer vehicles, like the Model 3 or the S and X introduced in April 2019 have significantly faster charging rates. So even if you take an old 75 kWh Model X 75 to a fast V3 Supercharger that can charge up to 250 kW, your old Model X will be limited to 105 kW. Here are some examples how Tesla vehicles and how their charging rates differ:
|Car or Battery Pack||Max Charging Rate|
|Model S/X: 40, 60, 70 75 kWh packs||up to 105 kW|
|Model S/X: 85, 90 kWh packs||up to 120 kW|
|Model S/X: 100 kWh packs||up to 145 kW|
|Model S/X: 100 kWh packs (Q2 2019)||up to 200 kW|
|Model S/X: 100 kWh packs (Q2 2020 & beyond)||up to 250 kW|
|Model 3 Standard / Standard Plus||up to 170 kW|
|Model 3 Medium Range||up to 200 kW|
|Model 3 Long Range||up to 250 kW|
|Model Y Long Range||up to 250 kW|
How Much Does it Cost to Charge a Tesla?
It depends on your location and electricity rate, but it generally costs around $0.28 per kWh to charge at a Supercharger (some charge by minute), unless you have free Supercharging credits, of course. At home, the average rate is around $0.13 per kWh in the US, but can vary quite a bit by state. As an aside, Tesla has stated that they make no profit from Supercharging and the rate is only meant to reflect local electricity rates plus the infrastructure costs.
Ok, so let’s assume you have a 2019 Model 3 Standard Range Plus with a 54 kWh battery pack that has a range of 250 miles. To completely fill up a totally dead battery at home with a rate of $0.13 per kWh would cost around $7. Roughly double that if you filled up at a Supercharger.
Tesla Charging Costs Compared to Gas and Other EVs
So how does this compare to other EVs and gas vehicles? The best way to compare it on a cost-per-mile basis (or better yet, cost-per-100 mile so it’s not in cents). Here’s a quick comparison of popular vehicles. The assumptions are $2.80 / gallon of gas and $0.18 / kWh (assuming charging outside of home at times). MPGe is MPG equivalent, provided by EPA.
|Car||MPG or MPGe||Cost / 100 Miles|
|2019 Tesla Model 3 (LR)||130||$4.35|
|2019 Chevy Bolt||119||$4.54|
|2019 Honda Accord Hybrid||48||$5.83|
Tesla Home Charging Time
When you charge at home with a Tesla Wall Connector, how long it takes depends on what amperage is connected to the charger / connector. Tesla home charging connectors use 240-volt connectors and will typically connect to a 20 amp or higher circuit in your house. These chargers are usually installed by electricians. Note that even though you connect to a 20 amp circuit, the maximum charge the Tesla Wall Connector will draw will be lower than that (e.g. 16 amps).
Home Charging Times with Wall Connector
Here’s a chart of typical home charging times based on your 240V circuit amps:
|Circuit||kW||Range Per Hour|
|60 amps||11.5||30 to 44 miles (Model X to Model 3)|
|40 amps||7.7||20 to 30 miles|
|20 amps||3.8||8 to 15 miles|
So, if you are charging from a drained battery, it will typically fully charge overnight. If you are charging from a daily commute (say 50 miles or less), it will usually charge back up in a couple hours of charging time.
Tesla also includes a portable charger called a “Mobile Connector” that can be used as a backup in a pinch to charge from regular 110-volt wall outlets (i.e. NEMA 5-15, a standard 3-prong plug). However, charging time using the Mobile Connector is the slowest way to charge and should only be used in emergencies. For example on a 15 amp circuit, you’d only get around 3 miles of range per hour of charge.
Tesla Supercharging Time
When you’re on the road and need to charge quickly, the Tesla Supercharger network is your answer. Tesla has built over 1,400 Supercharger stations and has strategically located them throughout the country to ensure you can drive coast-to-coast or on long distance trips and always have a spot to charge along the way. Elon Musk and Tesla want to remove any potential “range anxiety” for those traveling with Tesla electric vehicles. In addition, the Tesla navigation software will automatically route to Superchargers, as required, for your trip.
Factors That Determine Charge Rate
There are different types of Superchargers and how quickly they charge depends on a number of factors, including the Supercharger type, your vehicle, the battery State of Charge (SoC) – how full it is, the temperature, and how many other cars are charging in the case of V2 Superchargers.
Tesla Supercharging Curve (Tapered Charging)
It’s important to note that as the charging power increases, Tesla will automatically reduce the amount of charge to the battery as the battery fills up to avoid damaging the lithium-ion battery cells. This is called tapered charging and generally happens when you are charging quickly on-the-go (i.e. roughly over 20 kW).
This means it will charge faster in the beginning, when your battery charge is low and then slow down gradually as the battery becomes more full, after about 50% at high charge rates, to avoid damaging the battery and reducing battery life. When charging more slowly at an Urban Charger, for example, the tapering is less pronounced.
Additionally, most of the time you’ll never reach 100%, but rather 80% to avoid wear and tear on the battery (you can tell it to charge to near 100%, but that’s only recommended for long trips).
Charge Splitting on V2 Superchargers
The Superchargers found at most charging stations are typically V2 Superchargers that split the charge among two stalls usually labeled something like 3A and 3B.
If there are two cars charging, the first car to arrive will get most of the power and then it will switch over to the second car. Always try to find a stall number that has both A and B open to get the fastest charge. Urban and V3 Superchargers do not split charges.
Urban Superchargers were created by Tesla to help those urban Tesla owners charge that might not have the ability to charge at home (e.g. those who live in apartments, etc.) and have a unique post design that allows faster deployment in urban areas. The downside is they have a slower charge rate than classic Superchargers.
Charge Rate: 72 kW (~ 215 mi/hr)
Charge Time: Usually 45 minutes to a little over an hour to full.
Charge Splitting? No
V2 Superchargers are the most common Superchargers around the country. As mentioned above, they have power splitting between two stalls. This can be the most frustrating thing about V2 Superchargers, particularly in busy areas (always try to pick stall pairs that have both A and B open).
Charge Rate: 120 or 145 kW max (depending on station and vehicle)
Charge Time: Usually 30 minutes to an hour or more (heavily dependant on other vehicles being there or not)
Charge Splitting? Yes (A/B pairs)
V3 Superchargers are the latest-and-greatest Superchargers from Tesla. They look exactly the same as V2 Supercharger, but have a thinner, water-cooled cable. V3 Superchargers charge newer vehicles very quickly and don’t split power like the older V2 Superchargers. The downside is that they are very few of them around the country at this point and are rolling out slowly.
Charge Rate: 250 kW max (depending on vehicle)
Charge Time: Usually 15 to 40 minutes
Charge Splitting? No
Tesla Destination Charging Time
In addition to home chargers and Superchargers, Tesla owners have another type of charger available to them called Destination Chargers. These are essentially beefed-up home chargers provided to business that want to attract Tesla owners to their properties (think hotels, Airbnbs, wineries, etc.).
They are usually free to use as long as you are a customer of the business, but check to be sure. Your Tesla vehicle will show Destination Chargers along with Superchargers on your map and also show the charging rate.
In terms of charge rate, they typically range from 8 to 16 kW hours and may take several hours or even overnight to charge your battery, depending on the level of depletion.
Tesla Charging Time at Public EV Chargers
Public chargers a wide range of charge rates and can be a bit confusing. While Tesla owners will primarily charge at home or at Tesla Superchargers or Destination Chargers, there may be times when a public EV charging stop is needed, such as Chargepoint, Electrify America, or EVgo. Unfortunately, there are a few different plug types and payment methods, so you’ll want to plan ahead if you need to use a public charging station.
Here’s an example of the different plug types in North America:
The J1772 plug has a slow charge rate under 50 kW and is usually connected to business power lines. These are fairly common so Tesla currently includes an adapter with each vehicle for free.
CHAdeMO was originally developed in Japan and CCS (Type 1) is the standard in Europe. Both of these are what’s called “DC Fast” chargers and often have charge rate of over 50 kW. Tesla offers an optional adapter for CHAdeMO, but not for CCS (hopefully one day, but it’s usually not critical as CCS chargers often also have CHAdeMo plugs).
Here’s Tesla’s video showing the J1772 adapter being used at a ChargePoint-style station:
Third Party Charging Apps for Public Charging Stations
Since the charging times (and costs) vary widely across public chargers, you’ll want to get a couple apps to locate nearby chargers and pay for them as needed. Plugshare is a fantastic app that has a massive database of charging stations, including Tesla Superchargers. You’ll also want to download ChargePoint and set up an account so you’re ready to go, as needed. Chargepoint has payment roaming agreements with popular public high speed charging stations such as EVgo and Electrify America.
Tesla Charging Tips
There are a ton of YouTube videos with tips on how to minimize charging time. Here’s one of them, with a sensationalized headline, of course 🙂
Currently, Tesla has one of the most robust charging networks for any EV with easy access to a large Supercharger network plus the flexibility to charge at home or at destinations. And now with the new fast-charging Model 3, Model Y, S and X plus V3 Supercharging stations rolling out nationwide, Tesla also has some of the fastest charging times of any production electric car.